knee pain posts Archives

Acetaminophen

The BMJ (what used to be called the British Medical Journal) just published an article stating that acetaminophen (ie Tylenol) has been found to provide no relief in low back pain (compared to a placebo). Acetaminophen was also related to a risk of having an abnormal liver test. The article included data from 13 randomized controlled trials (RCTs).

An RCT to evaluate a drug is a research study where one group of people receives the actual drug (in this case, acetaminophen) and the other group receives a placebo (a pill with no active ingredient, generally a sugar pill). Then, data is collected from both groups to see if either achieved any painTylenol relief. In this analysis, it shows that whether you receive acetaminophen or a sugar pill, you had the same amount of pain relief – meaning that active drug had no real pain relief effect.

Although most of the patients I see find no relief from acetaminophen, a small percentage of patients do, so don’t completely dismiss this drug when it comes to helping your pain. However, if you do take acetaminophen, make sure that you’re not taking too much. The FDA recommends taking less than 3000mg a day. This means if you’re taking Extra Strength Tylenol (500mg), you can only take 6 pills a day, or regular strength, 300mg, 10 pills a day. Higher amounts can lead to liver damage that could even be life-threatening.

Share

What To Do When Back Pain Causes Overdose?

“We don’t appreciate what we have until it’s gone.” If only we had a dime for every time we heard this. Perhaps the reason it is such a common expression is the simple truth in it. This certainly applies to our health, but specifically our backs. We probably all take our good health in vain, until something goes wrong. By the time we are in our forties over twenty percent of us experience some form of back pain. And what do we do when we experience pain? Well, unfortunately many people will turn to strong painkillers. This means opioids, morphine-like painkillers. And, while we have written about this topic in the past, there is something new on the horizon. Evzio, the brand name of injectable Naloxone, is a prescription medicine that can block the effects of morphine and related painkillers. Approved by the FDA in April 2014, it allows a patient to quickly treat themselves or be treated by a family member if the patient has overdosed on opioids.Evzio

In the past, Evzio was difficult to obtain due to its high cost. However, recently The Clinton Foundation announced that it has negotiated a lower price for Evzio (see NYT article). This will allow municipalities to more easily purchase this medication, making it more available to those who need it.

It is a sad reality that many people will turn, in desperation, to painkillers as an answer to their aching backs. We, at the Norman Marcus Pain Institute, only use opioids as a last resort. Our method of finding the source of the pain and treating it has eliminated back pain for thousands of patients.. Nevertheless, with the rise of overdoses each year, the increased availability of naloxone to non-medical personnel will allow lives to be saved.

 

 

Share

Is Bad Weather To Blame For Your Lower Back Pain?

A New York Times article Weather May Not Affect Back Pain, printed mid-July, cited a study showing that weather may not affect back pain. The purpose of the study was to explore the often-heard complaint from patients diagnosed with persistent pain related to muscles and bones (musculoskeletal pain) that weather changes cause an increase in pain. The study was based on an analysis of 993 patients who had seen their physician in 2011-2012 complaining of an episode of sudden back pain. These were not patients with a history of back pain.

So this article does not actually examine patients who already have back pain to see if the pain is increased with bad weather. In my practice, at NMPI, I have patients who can tell me a snowstorm is coming 3 days before it occurs. Although studies of the association between weather and pain are not uniformly supportive of the connection, a study done in 1995 of 558 patients with chronic pain found that 2/3 experienced an increase in pain and most of them prior to the occurrence of the bad weather.

bad weatherI have patients whose pain is so severe with bad weather that they can hardly get out of bed. Although there is no good scientific explanation for this association, some suggestions have been offered. When the barometric pressure falls, the air pressure in a painful joint may continue to be a little higher than the air pressure on the outside of the body, causing an increase in pain. Another explanation is that cold and/or inclement weather decreases the amount of time you are outside and active. Patients with musculoskeletal problems (i.e. muscle pain and arthritis) often feel worse with inactivity. In addition cold weather causes the blood vessels in the hands and feet to constrict, which can decrease the amount of available oxygen, resulting in increased muscle pain.

If your history indicates that bad weather causes an increase in your pain, it is likely that your flare up is most likely not an indicator of physical deterioration. Additional pain can be reasonably treated with increased medication for the brief period of weather related pain.

 

Share

From 1991 to 2009, the number of prescriptions written for the strongest pain medications tripled. These medications are collectively named opioids and include morphine, oxycodone, and hydrocodone.Opioids are a type of pain drug that may cause serious side effects. From 2005 to 2009, the number of emergency room visits for nonmedical use of prescribed pain medication doubled. Therefore, the states and federal governments are acting to try to limit the amount of pain medication being prescribed.

At NMPI, we focus on finding the most effective treatment to relieve our patients’ pain – without surgery, steroid injections, or heavy painkillers. However, when a patient complains of severe pain and is not responding well to other pain medications, stronger, prescription opioids will be given.

 
Pain pills blog-Norman Marcus Pain Institute-blogSome opioids, such as oxycodone, are often combined with Tylenol (acetaminophen) in one pill. Some examples of these combination drugs are Lorcet, Lortab, Norco, Vicodin (are all hydrocodone and acetaminophen), and Percocet (oxycodone and acetaminophen). Most often, severe pain is related to a condition that will improve over time. Ideally, all prescription pain medications should be given only while severe pain persists. Like any medication, there are risks and side effects:

 

• Opioids can make you drowsy – which raises the risk of falling and severe injury
• Opioids when mixed with alcohol, anti-anxiety medication, seizure medication, muscle relaxants, or sleep-aids can be deadly.
• Opioids cause constipation and can lower sex drive.
• Patients can become physically and psychologically dependent on opioids.
• Overtime a patient with chronic pain can develop a tolerance for the opioid and need a higher dosage.

Keep in mind that not all pain requires such strong medication, and most patients with pain can be managed with drugs such as acetaminophen (Tylenol) and aspirin-like drugs, called non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (such as ibuprofen and Naproxen). When taken as directed, these less powerful drugs may be all that you need. (There are potential serious side effects with acetaminophen and NSAIDs, which I will discuss in a future blog.) For certain pains, some drugs are better than others. Sometimes we find that a drug we have been using may not actually be effective. A New York Times article on July 23, 2014 reported that for treating low back pain, acetaminophen was no better than a placebo.

Physicians have a responsibility to properly care for patients in pain. Some of these patients may appear to be at a higher risk to abuse opioids. Occasionally, patients complain of non-existent pain to obtain opioids for its mood-altering affect, called a “high.” The fact is that physicians who had been writing too many prescriptions for pain medication are now wary of prescribing any potentially habit-forming pain drugs. This has resulted in a decrease in emergency room visits for drug overdose and deaths from overdose, but it has also resulted in depriving many patients of medication they legitimately need to function normally.

At NMPI, when we treat patients in pain who have a history of drug abuse or who test positive on a written test to determine the risk of abuse, I believe that these two basic American traditions should be the guiding principles:

1. Innocent until proven guilty; and

2. In the words of Ronald Reagan, Trust but verify. Those patients who have problems or are at risk to not properly use pain medication need extra attention, not condemnation. They may be more difficult to treat, but that is why there are specialists to deal with complex pain problems.

Share

Low Level Laser Therapy as promising treatment

Low level laser therapy (LLLT) is a promising new treatment for a variety of painful conditions which is believed to reduce inflammation and stimulate healing of wounds.  Interest in the laser first developed when Endre Mester at Semmelweis University noticed that applying the laser to the backs of shaven mice caused hair to regrow faster than those who did not receive laser treatment.[1]  This observation prompted further study into the regenerative effects of the laser first in rats, and then later in humans.

Currently, there aren’t many large-scale studies evaluating the effectiveness of the laser, but smaller studies of the laser for painful conditions show promising results.

A study of 50 patients with knee osteoarthritis reported that the laser was significantly more effective at providing pain relief than transcutaneous electric nerve stimulation (TENS)**.[2]  Similarly, a separate study of 125 patients with knee osteoarthritis reported both an improvement in pain and an increase in function after LLLT.[3]

In a study of patients with temporomandibular disorders, the laser improved pain within 24 hours, with relief lasting at the 180 day follow-up.[4]

Current studies show that the laser is an up and coming, non-invasive, non-painful treatment option, but larger studies are needed to determine the correct dosing, and for which conditions the laser will be most useful.

 

 

 

**TENS (transcutaneous electrical stimulation) – electrodes are applied to the skin, sending an electric current to the nerves in the skin. The nerves then transmit a signal to the brain. This signal is competing with the signal coming from your painful area. So, instead of feeling your normal pain, you’ll feel a buzzing sensation where the electrodes are attached.



[1] Chung, Hoon, Tianhong Dai, Sulbha K. Sharma, Ying-Ying Huang, James D. Carroll, and Michael R. Hamblin. “The Nuts and Bolts of Low-level Laser (Light) Therapy.” Annals of Biomedical Engineering 40.2 (2012): 516-33. Print.

[2] Kędzierski, Tomasz, Katarzyna Stańczak, Kamila Gworys, Jowita Gasztych, Marcin Sibiński, and Jolanta Kujawa. “Comparative Evaluation of the Direct Analgesic Efficacy of Selected Physiotherapeutic Methods in Subjects with Knee Joint Degenerative Disease – Preliminary Report.” Ortopedia Traumatologia Rehabilitacja 14.6 (2012): 1-10. Print.

[3] Gworys, Kamila, Jowita Gasztych, Anna Puzder, Przemysław Gworys, and Jolanta Kujawa. “Influence of Various Laser Therapy Methods on Knee Joint Pain and Function in Patients with Knee Osteoarthritis.” Ortopedia Traumatologia Rehabilitacja 14.3 (2012): 269-77. Print.

[4] Pereira, T. S., O. D. Flecha, R. C. Guimaraes, A. M. Botelho, JC Ramos Gloria, and K. T. Aguiar Tavano. “Efficacy of Red and Infrared Lasers in Treatment of Temporomandibular Disorders–a Double-blind, Randomized, Parallel Clinical Trial.” Cranio : The Journal of Craniomandibular Practice 32.1 (2014): n. pag. Ovid. Web.

Share

Low-Level Laser Therapy

One lesser-known but valuable tool for multiple painful conditions is the low-level laser.  The laser is a source of extremely pure, organized light, as opposed to something like a regular light bulb, which emits a scattered, disorganized light.  We can liken organized light to the sound of a flute playing a single note, and disorganized light to the sound of a stone rolling around in a tin can.  The laser is a non-painful treatment option that affects the local (near the area being treated) immune system, blood circulation, and the release of different chemicals that affect how we experience pain.

While it isn’t clear exactly how the laser helps a variety of painful conditions, there are two proposed means by which the laser improves pain:

  1. The light energy (called photons) is absorbed in the injured area and stimulates the production of Cytochrome C.  Cytochrome C is a protein involved in cell metabolism and energy.  When Cytochrome C is stimulated, it revs up the cell’s metabolism, and gives the cells more energy to heal the injured area.
  2. The light energy from the laser leads to the production of small amounts of singlet oxygen.  Singlet oxygen is a reactive form of oxygen, which means that it is very easy for this type of oxygen to take part in chemical reactions.  At high doses, singlet oxygen can be destructive, and has been used in cancer treatment to destroy cancerous cells.  At very low doses, singlet oxygen can increase the number of cells.  This may be one way the laser helps promote tissue repair.

The laser in a non-invasive, non-painful treatment option that can, in some cases, produce results immediately.  For pain that has been around for a long time, more than one treatment session is usually needed for best results.

Share

How we perceive pain – nociceptors

We generally don’t think of muscles as a cause of pain. Sure, we know that after exercise or playing ball we can have muscle soreness, but when pain persists we often think it is coming from nerves, joints or the spine.  Believe it or not, muscles (and other soft tissue) are the most common reason for pains such as lower back pain, neck pain and shoulder pain.  The brain gets information from the body about pain from specialized nerves called nociceptors that respond to tissue damage. Trauma, overwork, and over-exercising cause low oxygen and too much acidity in the muscle. These changes, along with other chemicals that are produced when the muscle is damaged in any way, stimulate the nociceptor.  When a stimulus as strong enough it causes the nerve cell to produce an electrical impulse that is sent into the spinal cord and then up to the cortex, the part of the brain where we perceive pain.

There are actually more nociceptors in the muscle attachment sites (the ends of the muscle where it attaches to the tendon and the tendon attaches to the bone) than in the muscle tissue. That is why if you have pain originating in muscles you may be more aware of the pain close to a bone than in the middle of the muscle.

Any kind of injury releases substances from damaged muscle and surrounding tissue that stimulates the nociceptor. If the nociceptor gets enough stimulation it creates an electrical discharge which travels down the nerve and ends up in the spinal cord. Muscle nerves that have been stimulated repeatedly become more sensitive to additional stimulation. They are called sensitized nerves and they will more easily produce electrical activity with even non painful events such as any contraction to move the muscle. That is why when an injured muscle is used it may cause pain.  That is why if you have strained muscles for any reason you may feel pain from every day movement.  Nociceptors are key structures in the perception of pain.

Share

New possibilities for painful knees

The body can sometimes heal itself in painful conditions. A study of patients with painful osteoarthritis of the knee showed that by mechanically separating the bones in the knee that were touching and causing pain, cartilage regrew and pain and function improved. No other treatment is available that can produce structural change in an existing osteoarthritic joint. This is a potentially revolutionary discovery, and if shown to be effective in larger studies, may help patients with knee pain avoid or forestall knee replacement surgery. And give at least some temporary pain relief.

~ Norman Marcus, MD
Norman Marcus Pain Institute, New York NY
 
“Your New York City Pain Relief Doctor”

Share

Knee pain, back pain, and muscles

A large study of army recruits demonstrated the protective effect of exercise on the development of knee pain. Male and female recruits who performed 4 stretching and 4 strengthening exercises for 7 weeks, were 75% less likely to develop anterior knee pain.
Read the rest of this entry

Share
NORMAN MARCUS PAIN INSTITUTE
30 East 40th Street - New York, NY 10016
Tel 212-532-7999 Fax 212-532-5957
Share
Help Desk Software